NAME: Direct Bond Interconnect (DBI) technology.
USAGE: Wafer-to wafer bonding with electrical interconnect.
HOW: Wafers surface are planarized and bond pads are
recessed in a dielectric layer. The wafers are then aligned and
bonded at room temperature. The metal interconnect is
formed during low temperature batch anneal.
MARKETS: Smartphone, Tablet, Laptop, Digital Camera, IoT,
TV, Gaming Console, Industrial, Automotive, Medical.

DBI® is a low temperature hybrid direct bonding technology that allows wafers to be bonded with exceptionally fine pitch 3D electrical interconnect. Like ZiBond, the DBI alignment and bonding process is performed at room temperature.  It leverages industry-standard wafer bonding equipment, enabling the high-throughput, low cost-of-ownership fabrication process required for high volume market applications.
DBI can also minimize the need for Thru Silicon Vias (TSVs) by allowing interconnection to occur at the bonding surface, improving electrical performance. By incorporating dielectric bonding, it eliminates the need for under-fill while providing excellent thermal performance, reliability and hermeticity, if required.

Wafer to Wafer Bonding

Die to Wafer Bonding

Die to Die Bonding


DBI technology is a hybrid direct bonding technique that allows wafers to be bonded with exceptionally fine pitch 3D electrical interconnect at room temperature without any pressure or adhesives. During processing, industry-standard dielectrics surfaces, like silicon oxide and silicon carbide nitride, with embedded metal bond pads, typically of copper or nickel, are polished to achieve minimal surface roughness. Simultaneously, the metal bond pads are slightly dished. Polishing and dishing are readily achieved using standard chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) tools. Nitrogen-based chemistries are then applied through conventional plasma etch tools. Prepared wafers can then be simply aligned and placed together resulting in the spontaneous formation of strong chemical bonds between the prepared surfaces. After a moderate batch anneal, the DBI bond pads expand into one another to form a homogeneous metallic interconnect with grain growth across the bond interface. Concurrently, the chemical bond between oxides is significantly strengthened, ensuring high reliability without requiring under-fill.


Very fine pitch interconnect

Low temperature process

Bond between wafers with same of different thermal expansion rate

Chemical bond without external bond pressure

Minimal warpage or delamination problem


DBI is currently being employed in BSI image sensors and is shipping in high volume in mobile markets. MEMS, high density DRAM and high performance computing applications can benefit from the incorporation of DBI and achieve enhanced performance with improved scalability.